Respiration and Transpiration

The breathing cycle during the day on planet earth by the plants, humans and animals – mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science!

The sections of this article are:

1-  Allah Almighty’s Promise in the Noble Quran, to show us His Divine Miracles through His Holy Book.

      (a)-  Few examples that prove my claims.

2-  Allah Almighty’s Swear and Claim in Noble Verses 81:17-18.

      (a)-  The Noble Verses along with Dr. Zaghlool Al-Naggar’s Scientific proofs.

               (i)-  The expansion and contraction of the Ozone layer during the sun’s rising and setting.

      (b)-  More proofs from Arabic.
(c)-  What does It mean?
(d)-  The Prophet was thought of to be a “mad man”.
(e)-  No blind faith in Islam.

3-  The breathing of the plants, humans and animals during the day V.S during the night.

         –  Proving the Arabic Word using the Arabic-to-English and English-to-Arabic Google Translation, along with the ample English translations of Noble Verse 81:18 (see Article #1 in the section).

4-  Conclusion.

 

 

 

1-  Allah Almighty’s Promise in the Noble Quran, to show us His Divine Miracles through His Holy Book:

(See section #2-a below for the Noble Verses that deal with this article’s topic)

The sub-sections here are:

(a)-  Few examples that prove my claims.

 

The Noble Quran is filled with scientific statements and notions.  These are statements of Allah Almighty describing how He created things on earth and in the Universe.  What’s most amazing is that all of these scientific statements and notions had been proven to be in perfect agreement with science and our modern-day scientific discoveries.  Allah Almighty made the Noble Quran be Prophet Muhammad’s (peace be upon him) Everlasting Divine Miracle and proof for Prophethood.  The Holy Book certainly stood the test of time 1,500 years ago with Its Claims, Prophecies and Miraculous language eloquence, and it does again and again in our day today with Its overwhelming agreement with science and discoveries that were not known to man 1,500 years ago.

Allah Almighty Said: “We will soon show them Our signs in the Universe and inside their selves, until it will become quite clear to them that it is the truth. Is it not sufficient as regards your Lord that He is a witness over all things?  (The Noble Quran, 41:53)

Throughout the Noble Quran, Allah Almighty in many times spoke in the language of precise notions.  Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, said the following Hadith (saying):

Narrated Abu Huraira: “I heard Allah’s Apostle saying, I have been sent with Jawami al-Kalim (i.e., the shortest expression carrying the widest meanings), and I was made victorious with awe (caste into the hearts of the enemy), and while I was sleeping, the keys of the treasures of the earth were brought to me and were put in my hand.” Muhammad said, Jawami’-al-Kalim means that Allah expresses in one or two statements or thereabouts the numerous matters that used to be written in the books revealed before (the coming of) the Prophet.  (Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Interpretation of Dreams, Volume 9, Book 87, Number 141)

As we clearly see, the Prophet said that he was sent to reveal pithy words that encompass many meanings and topics, which are short in quantity and rich in meanings and interpretations.  Allah Almighty used scientific notions in the Noble Quran when He talked about how He created certain things (in our case here, the breathing morning as shown below).  He gave words that had multiple meanings and interpretations to them to make the Noble Quran truly be for all times and all places, and to enable it to truly be the Everlasting and Never Ending Divine Miracle that will always prove the Prophethood of Muhammad, peace be upon him.

 

(a)-  Few examples that prove the claims above:

The following articles clearly prove my points above:

  1. The Miracle of the Rain, Thunder and Electrical “fertilization” caused by winds in the Noble Quran!
  2. If the Noble Quran says the earth is “egg-shaped” through a Notion, then why couldn’t Prophet Muhammad just say it clear in plain Arabic?
  3. The Ozone layer is a protective ceiling to earth.
  4. The moon’s S-shaped orbit around earth is shaped like a branch of a date tree, mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science!
  5. The formation of milk from blood and FARTH (digested food’s material), mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science!
  6. Mountains prevent the earth from shaking while rotating around its own axle.
  7. The 7 layers of earth and iron was sent down from space.
  8. Honey was proven to be a healing medicine for humans.
  9. And so on….  Please visit: www.answering-christianity.com/sci_quran.htm for ample more articles.

 

 

2-  Allah Almighty’s Swear and Claim in Noble Verses 81:17-18:

The sub-sections here are:

(a)-  The Noble Verses along with Dr. Zaghlool Al-Naggar’s Scientific proofs.

        (i)-  The expansion and contraction of the Ozone layer during the sun’s rising and setting.

(b)-  More proofs from Arabic.
(c)-  What does It mean?
(d)-  The Prophet was thought of to be a “mad man”.
(e)-  No blind faith in Islam.

 

 

The Noble Verses along with Dr. Zaghlool Al-Naggar’s Scientific proofs:

With all of the above said, let us now look at what Allah Almighty said in Noble Verses 81:17-18:

81:17والليل اذا عسعس‏81:18 والصبح اذا تنفس

81:17 By the night as it falls.

81:18 And the morn as it breathes.Ample more English translations that accurately translate تنفس as breathes are located here.

 

Allah Almighty keeps the earth’s and the sky’s functions in order:

35:41 ان الله يمسك السماوات والارض ان تزولا ولئن زالتا ان امسكهما من احد من بعده انه كان حليما غفورا35:41 Indeed it is Allah Who holds the heavens and the earth (under control), and keeps them from falling into disarray. There is no one except He, Who can hold them together, should they break loose and deviate. Of course, He is the most Forbearing, the most Forgiving!

Certainly, Allah Almighty in the Noble Quran does not swear on something that isn’t big deal.
79:28 He raised its vault high, and gave it balance.

55:7 He raised the sky far above, and set up a (perfect) balance. 

3:18 Allah bears witness _ and so do the angels, and the men of learning _ that there is no god but He. In (perfect) balance does He maintain His creation! There is no god but He, the most Powerful and the Wisest!

42:17 It is God Who has sent down the Book in Truth, and the Balance. And what will make thee realise that perhaps the Hour is close at hand?

15:19 And the earth We have spread out; set thereon mountains firm and immovable; and produced therein all kinds of things in due balance.

Allah Almighty Sent down the Balance and Created everything in the Universe and maintains it in due balance.

Also, Dr. Zaghlool Al-Naggar, one of the world’s top 7 Geologists, said:

ثانياً : في قوله – تعالي – : ﴿ وَالصُّبْحِ إِذَا تَنَفَّسَ ﴾:
التنفس عملية حيوية يأخذ فيها كل من الإنسان والحيوان غاز الأكسجين من الهواء الجوى ليتم بواسطته أكسدة الدم الفاسد المتحرك إلي الرئتين وذلك في عملية (الشهيق) التى تتمدد فيها الرئتان تمدداً ملحوظا، ثم يخرج الغازات السامة من مثل غاز ثاني أكسيد الكربون ومعه بعض بخار الماء وذلك في عملية (الزفير) التى تنكمش فيها الرئتان انكماشا واضحاً. وهذه الآية الكريمة تشبه عملية تمدد نطق الغلاف الغازي للأرض مع بدء طلوع الشمس حتى غروبها , ثم انكماشها مع غياب الشمس إلى طلوع الفجر الصادق بعملية تنفس الأحياء من أمثال كل من الإنسان والحيوان وهو تشبيه معجز خاصة وأن نطق الحماية في الغلاف الغازي للأرض لم تكتشف إلا في العقود المتأخرة من القرن العشرين.

(http://www.elnaggarzr.com/?l=ar&id=1487&cat=6)

My translation, verbatim:

Second: In the Almighty’s Verse – : (And the morn as it breathes):

Breathing is a living experience – by which both humans and animals inhale the Oxygen gas from the air – to enable through it (i.e., the breathing of oxygen), the oxidizing of the spoiled moving blood cells to the lungs through the inhale process, in which the lungs expand a noticeable expansion.  Then, the poisonous gases such as Carbon Dioxide along with water vapor are exhorted out through the exhale process, in which the lungs contract a noticeable contract.  And this Noble Verse is similar to the expansion of the earth’s Gaseous (i.e., Ozone) Layer with the beginning of the rising of the sun until its setting.  And then the Gaseous Layer contracts with the sun’s setting until it rises (again), which (scientifically) goes along with the breathing process of the living creatures such as the humans and the animals, which indeed makes this parable a Miraculous one, especially that the increasing and decreasing of the Ozone Layer (with the sun’s rising and setting) wasn’t discovered until the late decades of the 20th century.

(end of translation)

Dr. Al-Naggar provided detailed and ample scientific proofs in the link that I gave above, which demonstrate each of the Ozone Layer’s layers’ expansion and contraction processes.  I will try to translate his work in the future, insha’Allah (if Allah Almighty is Willing).

 

More proofs from Arabic:

  • Nafas in Arabic means breath.
  • Yatanaffas means he is breathing.
  • Tatanaffas means she is breathing.
  • Tanaffas تنفس  means breathes.
  •  

    What does It mean?

  • So what does the breathing of the morning mean?
  • Why did Allah Almighty mention the breathing of the morning but not the night’s?  Yet, both the morning and the night were mentioned together.
  • How can the morning breath?
  • Why did Allah Almighty say that the morning and the day breathe?
  • And what type of breathing is Allah Almighty talking about?
  • To the people 1,500 years ago, what kind of an absurd statement is this?  And is it really an absurd statement after all?
  • Why would a simple and illiterate Bedouin, 1,500 years ago, say that the morning breathes?
  • Why doesn’t the night breathe and the morning does?
  • Who inspired the illiterate and simple Bedouin, our Holy and Blessed Prophet, Muhammad, peace be upon him, to say this statement?
  •  

    The Prophet was thought of to be a “mad man”:

    It is certainly worth mentioning that many people, 1,500 years ago, thought of Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, to be a mad man.  Even his companions had doubts about him, especially when they had to endure all of the pain and sacrifice that they had to go through from losing their wealth, family and everything they had in life for the Message that he brought to them.  It was a natural inclination for them to doubt him and to have serious second thoughts about him:

    “Say (to them O Muhammad SAW): “I exhort you on one (thing) only: that you stand up for Allahs sake in pairs and singly, and reflect (within yourselves the life history of the Prophet SAW): there is no madness in your companion (Muhammad SAW), he is only a warner to you in face of a severe torment.”  (The Noble Quran, 34:46)

    “And (O people) your companion (Muhammad (Peace be upon him)) is not a madman;  (The Noble Quran, 81:22)

    So finding what appears to be “absurd” statements in the Noble Quran to the people 1,500 years ago is quite common.  Yet, after all, these weren’t absurd statements (of course, everything is relative), but rather were clear Prophecy-fulfillments and Scientific Miracles in our Holy Book.  Again, Allah Almighty clearly Said: “We will soon show them Our signs in the Universe and inside their selves, until it will become quite clear to them that it is the truth. Is it not sufficient as regards your Lord that He is a witness over all things?  (The Noble Quran, 41:53)

    Indeed, ample Verses in the Noble Quran were revealed for Mankind of today, who is advanced in science, knowledge and technology.  This indeed makes the Noble Quran’s Divine Miracle an Everlasting one that was designed solely by Allah Almighty to demonstrate His Holiness, Might, Power and Truth for us today and to eliminate any doubt that we might have in our hearts.

     

    No blind faith in Islam:

    Think about it:  As a Jew, you are to only blindly believe that Prophet Moses, peace be upon him, did convert a wooden stick to a live snake and did split the sea in half with one strike.  And as a Christian, you are to only blindly believe that Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be upon him, did walk on water, heal the blind, raise the dead (other Prophets in the Bible’s Old Testament did also raise the dead) and so on.  You really have no absolute proof beside just to have literally a blind faith to believe that any of this did take place!

    Islam, on the other hand, is GOD Almighty’s Final Religion on earth, and because of this, Allah Almighty Chose out of His Divine Wisdom, Grace, Mercy and Will, to make the Noble Quran to be GOD Almighty’s everlasting and living Messenger and Miracle on earth for all times and all places.  Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, did perform his own Miracles 1,500 years ago beside the Linguistic Miracle of the Noble Quran.  So the Muslims back then had ample proofs to help them see the Truthfulness of the Holy Prophet.  They didn’t just have to follow him by blind faith.  No, they had their proofs.  But to us today, or at least to me personally, none of these stories would really hold much water if it wasn’t for the Noble Quran’s Divine Miracles in language and science.  I am a skeptical person by nature, and to me, I would find it very difficult to believe that a man, for instance, could turn a stick into a snake.  To me that would’ve been almost like either a lie or a fairy tale that was created by people’s gossips and bed-time stories, thousands of years ago.  But yet, because they are confirmed in the Holy Quran, then the matter now is different!  They are no longer bed-time stories and fairy tales.  They are now Divine Miracles that lived and ended when their Prophets, who performed them by Allah Almighty’s Divine Will, departed our planet earth.  The only Divine Miracle that stayed on earth, by Allah Almighty’s Will, Mercy, Grace, Design and Wisdom, is the Noble Quran.  The Noble Quran CONFIRMS the Truth of these Divine Miracles.  The Noble Quran also serves as a living proof and testimony to them and to their Holy Prophets, and also to the existence and to the Truthfulness of Allah Almighty – that yes, GOD Almighty does indeed exist.  And the Noble Quran also serves as a living testimony and proof about the Truthfulness of our Holy and Blessed Prophet, Muhammad, peace be upon him.

     

     

    3-  The breathing of the plants, humans and animals during the day V.S during the night:

    Scientist discovered that plants breathe (i.e., inhale) Carbon Dioxide and exhale Oxygen during the day, and inhale Oxygen and exhale Carbon Dioxide during the night.  Scientists also confirmed that us humans and animals always inhale Oxygen and exhale Carbon Dioxide all the time.  What this means is that the day, which starts by the morning, does indeed have or generate a breathing cycle on our planet earth, because half of the creatures that live on earth generate Oxygen while the other half generate Carbon Dioxide.  Obviously, planets generate far more oxygen than us and animals generate carbon dioxide, which explains why we would have enough source of oxygen at night when all of the GOD Almighty-Created creatures on earth inhale O2 and exhale CO2 at night.

    The following scientific articles clearly and indisputably prove this:

     

    Article #1:

    This article is from Dr. Harun Yahya, and it is located at: http://www.harunyahya.com/miracles_of_the_quran_p1_06.php#9.  The articles below further prove Dr. Yahya’s scientific claims.

    (Pay attention to the red text below)

    HOW THE PROCESS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS BEGINS IN THE MORNING

    And [I swear] by the night when it draws in, and by the dawn when it breathes in. (Qur’an, 81:17-18)
    An addition from me, Osama Abdallah:

    Actually, the most accurate translation of the Noble Verses is as show above and as follows:

    81:17 والليل اذا عسعس

    81:18 والصبح اذا تنفس

    81:17 By the night as it falls.

    81:18 And the morn as it breathes.

    There is no “in” in the end of Noble Verse 81:18.  The Arabic word is تنفس (tanaffas) and it only means breathe.  See also Google Translationof the Arabic word to English.  Simply, copy the Arabic word, paste it and click the “Translate” button.  You can also use the English-to-Arabic Google Translation.  Type in “breathe” and click the “Translate” button and you’ll see تنفس .  See also the English translations of the Noble Verse, in the link above, for more proofs.

    (end of addition)

    Light is one of the most essential elements in the performance of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis varies in proportion to the intensity and duration of the light source. With the reception of the Sun’s rays in the morning, photosynthesis—in other words, the production of oxygen begins.

    When plants undergo photosynthesis, they take in carbon dioxide, a harmful gas that human beings cannot consume, from the air, and give off oxygen instead. Oxygen, which we breathe and which is our basic source of life, is the main product of photosynthesis. Some 30% of the oxygen in the atmosphere is produced by plants on land, the remaining 70% being produced by plants and single-celled living things in the seas and oceans.

    Photosynthesis is a complex process, and one which scientists have still not yet fully understood. This process cannot be observed with the naked eye, because the mechanism employs electrons, atoms and molecules. However, we can see the results of photosynthesis in the oxygen which enables us to breathe, and in the foodstuffs that keep us alive. Photosynthesis is a system which involves complicated chemical formulae and units of weight, and on very small scale, and consisting of the most sensitive equilibriums. There are trillions of chemical laboratories that carry out this process in all the green plants around us. Furthermore, plants have been meeting our oxygen, food and energy needs non-stop for millions of years.

    The productivity of photosynthesis is measured by the level of oxygen output. The greatest point is in the morning, when the Sun’s rays are most concentrated. At dawn, the leaves begin to sweat, and photosynthesis increases accordingly. In the afternoon, however, the opposite applies; in other words photosynthesis slows down, and respiration increases because as the temperature rises perspiration also increases. At night, as the temperature falls, perspiration declines and the plant rests.

    The term “itha tanaffasa” in Surat at-Takwir, in reference to the morning hours, in other words, “when it breathes in,” is a metaphorical reference to breathing, respiration, or breathing deeply. This term particularly emphasises the way that the production of oxygen begins in the morning, and that the greatest levels of oxygen, essential for respiration, are given off at that time. The importance of the phenomena is also emphasised by the way that Allah swears upon it. The way that Allah indicates the action of photosynthesis, among the most important discoveries of the 20th century, in this verse, is another of the scientific miracles of the Qur’an.

    Photosynthesis is the use by plants and sometimes by certain bacteria and single-cell life forms of the Sun’s rays in order to produce sugar (carbohydrate) from carbon dioxide and water. As a result of this reaction, the energy in the Sun’s rays is stored inside the sugar molecule produced. The following formula summarises the reaction that takes place during the process by which unusable solar energy is transformed into usable chemical energy:6H2O + 6CO2 —PHOTOSYNTHESIS—> C6H12O6+ 6O2

    (6 water molecules + 6 carbon dioxide molecules are turned into 1 sugar molecule and 6 oxygen molecules by means of photosynthesis.)

     

    Article #2:

    “How Plants Breathe

    Plants do breathe – they give out carbon dioxide and absorb oxygen from the air that surrounds them. Their tissues respire just as animal tissues do. Plants, however, do not have lungs or a blood stream, so we cannot say that they breathe in the same way as animals.

    We also have to be careful when studying green plants because in the light the green parts of these plants carry out photosynthesis as well as respiration.

    Photosynthesis does the opposite of respiration. Carbon dioxide is absorbed and oxygen is produced. In order to study respiration in green plants we must block out the light, because although green plants respire all the time they only photosynthesize in the light.

    Remember that a green plant respires all the time, day and night.
    A green plant photosynthesizes only in the presence of sunlight.

    All parts of the plant respire, the leaves, the stem, the roots and even the flowers. The parts above the soil get their oxygen directly from the air through pores. The pores in the leaves are called stomata (singular: stoma). The pores in the branches of trees are called lenticels.”  (Source)

    Article #3:

    (Also, a PDF version of this article is located here)

    “Cycles and Growth: How a Forest Works

    Tree Biology

    Each part of a tree has a special function. Working together these parts help the tree survive, grow, and reproduce.

    Photosynthesis

    Leaves make food for the tree. Chlorophyll is the green chemical in the cells of leaves. Leaves use chlorophyll to capture energy from the sun in a process called photosynthesis. They make simple sugars and oxygen using carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil. These simple sugars can be used as food energy or as building blocks for more complex products such as starch, carbohydrates, and cellulose. Carbon dioxide enters and oxygen exits through small pores or openings in the leaf surface called stomata. The tree maintains internal temperatures by losing water through its stomata (transpiration).

    ………….

    Carbon Cycle

    Carbon, the main element in all organic molecules (molecules from a living or once-living thing), also cycles through the forest. One reservoir of carbon is the atmosphere. Most carbon in the atmosphere is in the form of carbon dioxide.

    Plants use carbon dioxide to make food through photosynthesis. When a deer browses on a woody plant its body converts the carbon stored in the plant into deer tissue. If a person hunts and eats the deer, the carbon stored in the venison becomes part of the person.

    Through each one of these carbon transfers, some carbon is lost through respiration (process that breaks down food into usable energy). Carbon dioxide is released through the pores of a plant’s leaves when it breaks down stored food for energy to grow. As the deer uses energy to run, it releases carbon dioxide through its lungs. Bacteria and fungi decompose plants and animals when they die. This releases carbon into the soil and the atmosphere…….”  (Source)

    Article #4:

    (Pay attention to the red parts below)

    Chapter 10 – Photosynthesis & Respiration

    Radiant Energy

    1. Living organisms ultimately depend upon food produced by photosynthesis.
    2. Autotrophs have ability to synthesize organic molecule from raw material; heterotrophs must take in reformed organic molecules.
    3. Bodies of plants also become fossil fuels used for energy to drive modern machinery and heat buildings.
    4. Sunlight
      • a. Radiant energy is described by its wavelength; gamma rays are shortest and radio waves are longest.
      • b. The visible spectrum is a narrow band ranging from violet (shortest) to red (longest).
      • c. Energy content is also highest for shorter violet and lowest for longer red light.
    5. About 42% of total solar radiation that hits the atmosphere reaches through to the surface; higher energy wavelengths are screened out by ozone, lower energy wavelengths are screened out by water vapor and carbon dioxide.
    6. Life is adapted in vision and photosynthesis to the middle wavelengths.
    7. Chlorophylls and carotenoids are pigments capable of absorbing portions of the visible light spectrum.
    8. Chlorophyll absorbs far less green light; thus green is reflected and leaves appear green.
    9. Carotenoids absorb violet-blue-green and reflect yellow-orange; when chlorophyll breaks down in fall, these pigments remain to give some leaves their fall color.

    Structure and Function of Chloroplasts

    1. Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells that carry on photosynthesis.
    2. Water is both utilized and produced by photosynthesis.
    3. A generalized carbohydrate (CH2O) is also produced.
    4. The oxygen in the O2 produced by photosynthesis comes from the input of water; this as shown by experiment where heavy oxygen (18C) in water turns up as the total oxygen produced. The oxygen from CO2 therefore becomes part of the carbohydrate.
    5. Photosynthesis can also be represented as the reverse of cellular respiration; water molecules are oxidized and CO2 is reduced.
    6. Anatomy of Chloroplasts
      • a. Most chloroplasts are in leaves.
      • b. Mesophyll cells receive water from vessels extending up from roots.
      • c. CO2 enters and O2 exits a leaf through small pores.
      • d. Chloroplasts are bounded by a double membrane.
      • e. Inside these membranes is a large space called the stroma; the stroma contains an energy-rich solution that reduces carbon dioxide (CO2), converting it to an organic compound.
      • f. Grana are stacks of flattened sacs called thylakoids that contain the pigment chlorophyll.
      • g. Chlorophyll and other pigments in the membranes absorb solar energy which energizes electrons before reducing CO2 in the stroma.

    Solar Energy Capture

    1. Photosynthesis involves two sets of reactions: the light-dependent reactions that require light be present, and the light-independent reactions that can take place in the dark.
    2. Generally, the light-dependent reactions remove low energy electrons from water when chlorophyll absorbs energy; these electrons move down an electron transport system to produce ATP from ADP and (P); energized electrons are also taken up by NADP+1, which temporarily holds energy to fuel upcoming CO2 reduction.
    3. Generally, the light-independent reactions use ATP and NADPH formed in thylakoids to reduce CO2 in the stroma; the CO2 from the air is fixed by a substrate of the Calvin cycle to produce CH2O.
    4. The Calvin cycle is named for Melvin Calvin who used radioactive carbon-14 to label the CO2 to discover the light-independent reactions.
    5. Thylakoid membranes contain two light-gathering units, Photosystem I (PS I) and Photosystem II (PS II), named in the order of their discovery.
    6. Pigment Complex Molecules
      • a. Include chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, and carotenoids.
      • b. Serve as an “antenna” to gather sunlight energy until concentrated in the reaction-center chlorophyll.
      • c. Electrons become so excited that they escape to a nearby electron acceptor molecule.
    7. Cyclic Electron Pathway
      • a. This pathway begins after the PS I pigment complex absorbs solar energy.
      • b. Energized electrons leave the reaction-center chlorophyll of PS I, pass through the electron transport system (cytochrome system), release energy used to produce ATP, and then return to the reaction-center again.
      • c. This pathway only produces ATP.
      • d. Some photosynthetic bacteria only utilize this pathway; it therefore may have evolved early in the history of life.
    8. Noncyclic Electron Pathway
      • a. Noncyclic electron pathway results in both ATP and NADPH.
      • b. Pigment complex of PS II absorbs solar energy.
      • c. Excited electrons leave reaction-center chlorophyll a molecule.
      • d. PS II takes replacement electrons from water, which splits releasing oxygen.
      • e. High energy electrons that leave PS II are captured by an acceptor molecule.
      • f. Electrons pass from one carrier to the next in the electron transport system as the released energy is used for ATP production.
      • g. When PS I pigment complex absorbs solar energy, excited electrons leave the reaction-center chlorophyll a and are captured by an acceptor molecule that passes electrons on to NADP+, and NADP+ picks up H+ from stroma to form NADPH.
      • h. Results of noncyclic electron flow: water is split, yielding electrons, oxygen and hydrogen ions; ATP is produced; and NADP+ becomes NADPH.
    9. Chemiosmotic ATP Synthesis
      • a. The membranous system within the stroma forms flattened sacs called thylakoids, in some places they are stacked to form grana.
      • b. The thylakoid space within acts as a reservoir for hydrogen ions.
      • c. Each time a water is split, two H+ remain in the thylakoid space.
      • d. Compared to the stroma, the large number of hydrogen ions in the thylakoid space create an electrochemical gradient.
      • e. The flow of H+ from high to low concentration across the thylakoid membrane provides energy that allows ATP synthase enzyme to produce ATP from ADP + (P).
    10. The Thylakoid Membrane is Organized
      • a. Biochemical and structural studies show intact complexes in the thylakoid membrane.
      • b. PS II is the light-gathering complex that splits water and produces oxygen.
      • c. The cytochrome complex transports electrons between PS II and PS I.
      • d. PS I is a light-gathering pigment associated with the enzyme that reduces NADP+ to NADPH.
      • e. ATP synthase complex has a H+ channel and a protruding ATP synthase; H+ flows down this channel and ATP is produced from ADP + (P).

    Carbohydrate Synthesis

    1. The light-independent reactions are the second stage of photosynthesis.
      • a. NADPH and ATP from the light-dependent reactions reduce carbon dioxide to form a carbohydrate.
      • b. Reduction of CO2 within the stroma of the chloroplast occurs by the Calvin cycle.
    2. The Calvin Cycle
      • a. Summary: carbon dioxide combines with a five-carbon sugar; the six-carbon molecule breaks down to form two PGA (three-carbon) molecules; PGA is reduced to PGAL by using NADPH and ATP; regenerating the five carbon sugar. PGAL, the end product of the Calvin cycle, is converted to many other molecules (glucose phosphate, fatty acids, amino acids, etc.) especially by algae and plants.
      • b. Details of the Calvin cycle can be divided into CO2 fixation, CO2 reduction, and regeneration of RuBP.
      • c. Fixing Carbon Dioxide
        • i. Carbon dioxide combines with RuBP, a five-carbon molecule due to the enzyme RuBP carboxylase.
        • ii. This protein makes up 20-50% of protein content of chloroplasts.
      • d. Reducing Carbon Dioxide
        • i. The six-carbon molecule from CO2 fixation immediately breaks down to form two PGA (phosphoglycerate) three-carbon molecules.
        • ii. PGA is reduced to PGAL (phosphoglyceraldehyde) by using NADPH and ATP from the light- dependent reaction in two steps.
      • e. Regenerating RuBP
        • i. For every three turns of the Calvin cycle, five molecules of PGAL are used to re-form three molecules of RuBP.
        • ii. The net gain of three turns of the Calvin cycle is one PGAL molecule.
        • iii. This reaction utilizes some ATP produced by the light-dependent reactions.

    Other Aspects of Photosynthesis

    1. C3 Versus C4 Photosynthesis
        • a. C3 photosynthesis is described as above because a C3 molecule is detected immediately following CO2 fixation.
        • b. In C4 photosynthesis, a C3 molecule is detected following CO2 fixation.
        • c. C3 plants:

      -include wheat, rice, oats and Kentucky blue grass -have mesophyll cells with well-formed chloroplasts, cells are arranged in parallel layers

          • d. C4 plants:

      -include sugarcane, corn and crabgrass -CO2 is taken up in mesophyll cells and then a C4 molecule (oxaloacetate) is pumped into the bundle sheath cells where it releases CO2 to the Calvin cycle-have chlorophyll in both the bundle sheath cells and the mesophyll cells that are arranged around the sheath.

        • v. C3 plants have an advantage in moderate climates, C4 plants are more sheltered from drying in hot and dry climates because oxygen accumulates when stomates close to protect the plant.
    2. CAM Photosynthesis
      • a. CAM plants fix some CO2 at night, forming C4 molecule.
      • b. CAM from “crassulacean-acid metabolism”; Crassulaceae is family of warm, arid region flowers.
      • c. With stomates closed in daytime, these plants conserve water.

    Aerobic Cellular Respiration

    1. Cellular respiration includes all metabolic pathways where carbohydrates and other metabolites are broken down to build up ATP.
    2. Aerobic cellular respiration includes pathways that require oxygen.
    3. Breaking glucose (a high-energy molecule) into CO2 and H2O (low-energy molecules) is an exergonic process.
    4. Upon breakdown, electrons are removed from glucose and eventually received by O2.
    5. Glucose is oxidized and O2 is reduced; glucose breakdown is therefore an oxidation-reduction reaction.
    6. The buildup of ATP is an endergonic reaction, it requires energy.
    7. The breakdown of one glucose results in 36 to 38 ATP molecules being formed; this is under 40% of the potential energy within a glucose molecule, over 60% is lost as heat.
    8. The Steps of Aerobic Respiration
      • a. Aerobic cellular respiration is a gradual process that prevents energy loss as heat.
      • b. Glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate; occurs outside the mitochondria.
      • c. During the transition reaction, pyruvate is oxidized to acetyl CoA and CO2 is removed; the transition reaction occurs twice per glucose molecule.
      • d. The Krebs cycle is cyclical series of oxidation reactions that give off CO2 and produce one ATP per cycle; it turns twice per glucose and produces two ATP.
      • e. The electron transport system is a series of carriers that accept electrons removed from glucose and eventually pass then to oxygen; release of energy along this electron transport chain results in ATP buildup.
    9. NAD is a coenzyme of oxidation-reduction.
      • a. NAD+ picks up two electrons and one hydrogen ion; the substrate is oxidized and NAD+ is reduced.
      • b. The electrons received by NAD+ are used by the cell to produce ATP.
      • c. Like an enzyme, the coenzyme NAD+ is used over and over again; only a small amount is therefore present in a cell.
      • d. After NAD+ accepts electrons and is reduced to NADH, NADH passes the electrons to another carrier and becomes oxidized to NAD+ again.
      • e. FAD is sometimes used instead of NAD+ to oxidize substrates; FAD accepts two electrons and two hydrogen ions and becomes FADH2.

    Outside the Mitochondria: Glycolysis

    1. Glycolysis breaks down glucose to two molecules of pyruvate outside the mitochondria.
    2. Found in all organisms, glycolysis probably evolved before the Krebs cycle and electron transport system and probably is why it occurs in the cytoplasm and does not require oxygen.
    3. The Energy Investment Steps:
      • a. Two ATP are used to activate glucose (a six-carbon molecule).
      • b. The resulting molecule is phosphorylated (phosphate groups are added).
      • c. The C6 molecule splits into two C3 molecules, each of which is phosphorylated.
    4. The Energy Generation Steps:
      • a. Oxidation of substrates is carried out by NAD+ twice producing two NADH.
      • b. Energy released allows formation of four ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation.
      • c. During substrate-level phosphorylation, a substrate passes a high-energy phosphate to ADP forming ATP.
      • d. Subtracting two ATP used to get the reaction started, there is a net gain of two ATP.
    5. Glycolysis is not just an aerobic process but also occurs in anaerobic fermentation.

    Inside the Mitochondria

    1. The transition reaction, the Krebs cycle and the electron transport system all take place inside the mitochondria.
    2. Enzymes for the Krebs cycle are located in the fluid-filled matrix of the mitochondria.
    3. Pathways: oxygen and glucose diffuse into cells from bloodstream, pyruvate (as an end product of glycolysis) diffuses into mitochondria; CO2 and ATP diffuse back out of mitochondria into cytoplasm and CO2 further diffuses back to bloodstream. Water can remain in mitochondria, in cytoplasm, or enter bloodstream for excretion. ATP remains as a source of energy for the cell to do work.
    4. Since most of ATP is produced in mitochondria, mitochondria are often called the powerhouses of the cell.
    5. The transition reaction:
      • a. Connects glycolysis to Krebs cycle.
      • b. Occurs within matrix of mitochondria.
      • c. From glucose, two molecules of pyruvate are converted to a two-carbon acetyl group attached to coenzyme A (CoA).
      • d. CO2 is given off.
    6. The Krebs cycle:
      • a. Occurs in matrix of mitochondria.
      • b. Takes up acetyl group (acetyl CoA) from transition reaction and oxidizes it to two CO2 molecules.
      • c. During the process, most of the electrons are accepted by NAD+ but in one instance they are taken by FAD.
    7. The Electron Transport System:
      • a. Is located on cristae (projections of inner membrane).
      • b. Consists of a series of carriers that pass electrons; some of protein carriers are cytochrome molecules so system is also called the cytochrome system.
      • c. Accounts for most of the ATP produced.
      • d. When NADH gives up electrons, it becomes NAD+ while an electron carrier gains electrons and is reduced.
      • e. Each sequential carrier becomes reduced and then oxidized as electrons move down the system.
      • f. As electrons pass from carrier to carrier, energy is released and used to form ATP molecules.
      • g. When NADH delivers electrons to the first carrier, enough energy is released by time electrons reach the O2 to produce three ATPs.
      • h. When FADH2 delivers electrons to electron transport system, only two ATPs result.
    8. The Cristae:
      • a. Contain carriers of electron transport system arranged in a functional manner.
      • b. The carriers use released energy to pump the surplus hydrogen ions carried by NADH and FADH2 into intermembrane space of mitochondria.
      • c. Cristae also contain ATP synthase complex:
        • i. Hydrogen ions flow from high to low concentration from intermembrane space across to matrix.
        • ii. Resulting H+ flow drive enzyme ATP synthase to synthesize ATP from ADP + (P) .
        • iii. Process is called chemiosmosis because ATP production is tied to an electrochemical gradient.
    9. Calculating Energy Yield from Glucose Metabolism (Fig. 7.9)
      • a. Per glucose, four ATP are formed by substrate-level phosphorylation, two during glycolysis and two during two turns of Krebs cycle.
      • b. Per glucose, ten NADH and two FADH2 take electrons to the electron transport system.
      • c. For each NADH formed inside the mitochondria by Krebs cycle, three ATP result; for each FADH2, only two ATP are produced.
      • d. The glycolytic pathway outside the mitochondria produces only two ATP when the electrons are shuttled to the electron transport system inside the mitochondrion.
    10. How Efficient is Aerobic Respiration?
      • a. Difference in energy content between glucose and O2, and products CO2 and H2O is 686 kilocalories.
      • b. The ATP third phosphate bond has energy content of 7.3 kilocalories, 36 ATP are produced per glucose breakdown totaling 263 kilocalories.
      • c. Efficiency is 263/686 or 39%.
      • d. Sixty-one percent is lost as heat; in birds and mammals, this heat assists in maintaining body temperature.

    Metabolic Pool and Biosynthesis

    1. Catabolic Reactions
      • a. Catabolic reactions break down molecules, driving anabolic reactions which synthesize molecules.
      • b. Aerobic cellular respiration has already shown the catabolism of glucose.
      • c. Fats are broken down:
        • i. Glycerol is converted to PGAL in glycolytic pathway.
        • ii. Fatty acids are converted to acetyl-CoA, which enters the Krebs cycle.
        • iii. Fats are an efficient form of stored energy, an 18-carbon fatty acid results in nine acetyl-CoA molecules that produce 216 ATP molecules via respiration.
      • d. Amino acids are broken down:
        • i. Amino acids must undergo deamination (removal of amino group; this occurs in the liver).
        • ii. The amino group becomes ammonia (NH3) which becomes urea via the urea cycle.
        • iii. The carbon skeleton produced by deamination can then enter Krebs cycle depending on the number of carbons left after deamination.
    2. Anabolic Reactions
      • a. Anabolic reactions use ATP produced during catabolism to synthesize molecules.
      • b. The cell’s metabolic pool consists of large molecules that can be converted to other molecules without buildup from small molecular units; for example, PGAL can be converted to glycerol and acetyl groups can be joined to form fatty acids.
      • c. Some metabolites are converted to amino acids through transamination, transfer of an amino group from one amino acid to another.
      • d. Plants can synthesize all the amino acids they need.
      • e. Animals lack some enzymes to synthesize some amino acids; therefore must secure these from diet; lack of sufficient amino acids in diet results in protein deficiency disease.
      • f. Humans can synthesize 11 of 20 common, necessary amino acids; therefore must secure other nine from diet.
      • g. All the reactions involved in cellular respiration are part of a metabolic pool in which one type of molecule can be converted to another in catabolism or anabolism.

    Fermentation

    1. Cellular respiration includes both aerobic cellular respiration and fermentation.
    2. Fermentation is a series of enzymatic reactions where glucose is incompletely metabolized into lactate or CO2 and alcohol. 
    3. Fermentation is anaerobic; it does not require O2.
    4. During fermentation, there is a net gain of only two ATPs..
    5. Fermentation consists of glycolysis plus the reduction of pyruvate.
      • a. Pathway is anaerobic because after NADH transfers its electrons to pyruvate, it is free to return and pick up more electrons during earlier glycolysis reactions.
      • b. Lactic acid bacteria reduce pyruvate to lactic acid; other bacteria produce important industrial chemicals: isopropanol, butyric acid, propionic acid, and acetic acid.
      • c. Yeasts represent organisms that reduce pyruvate to alcohol and carbon dioxide.
      • d. Animals reduce pyruvate to lactate when pyruvate is produced faster than it can be oxidized.
    6. Advantages and Disadvantages of Fermentation
      • a. In spite of low yield and toxicity, fermentation provides rapid burst of ATP.
      • b. In muscle cells of animals, fermentation provides two ATP molecules while oxygen is temporarily in limited supply while exercising.
      • c. When blood cannot carry away lactate fast enough, lactate builds up in muscles, changes the pH, and causes muscle fatigue and preventing contraction.
      • d. When we stop exercising, we are in oxygen debt and continue breathing heavily until lactate is transported to the liver to be reconverted to pyruvate, or pyruvate is respired completely.
      • e. Efficiency of Fermentation
        • i. Energy content of last ATP bond is 7.3 kilocalories and two are produced per glucose fermentation for a total of 14.6 kilocalories.
        • ii. Complete glucose breakdown to CO2 and H2O yields 686 kilocalories.
        • iii. Efficiency of fermentation is therefore 14.6/686 or 2.1%.

    Photosynthesis Versus Aerobic Cellular Respiration

      1. Both plants and animals carry out respiration, only plants carry on photosynthesis.
      2. Cell organelle for aerobic respiration is the mitochondrion; the organelle for photosynthesis is the chloroplast.
      3. Overall equation for aerobic cellular respiration is the opposite of that for photosynthesis:

    ATP energy + 6 CO2 + 6 H2O –> C6H12O6 + 6 O2 (cellular respiration) solar energy + 6 CO2 + 6 H2O <– C6H12O6 + 6 O2 (photosynthesis)

      • Cellular respiration requires oxygen, breaks down carbon dioxide, and occurs in both plants and animals, day or night.
      • Photosynthesis requires carbon dioxide, releases oxygen, involves reduction, and stores energy.
      • Both photosynthesis and cellular respiration are metabolic pathways.
      • Both make use of an electron transport system located in a membrane to produce ATP.
      • Both use a hydrogen carrier (NAD+ in respiration, NADP+ in photosynthesis).
        Photosynthesis occurs only during daytime in plants; during daylight hours, the rate of photosynthesis exceeds the rate of aerobic cellular respiration.”  (Source)

    Other great articles:

    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorophyll#Chlorophyll_and_photosynthesis
    2. http://dnr.iowa.gov/education/backinfo/cycles.pdf
    3. http://www.ahnrit.vt.edu/portfolio/plantnutrition/wellbaum_photosynthesis.swf  (flash session)

    So if half of GOD Almighty’s creations on earth, i.e., the plants, inhale CO2 and exhale O2, and the other half, i.e., us humans and the animals, inhale O2 and exhale CO2, and if both of us halves, plants, humans and animals, are equal at night (both inhale O2 and both exhale CO2), then this without any dispute makes the daytime a breathing time, as Allah Almighty PRECISELY said so, since the balance between Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide is perfectly intact; one half of the creatures is producing O2 while the other half is producing CO2.

     

    This indeed makes the day a breathing day!!

     

    Indeed, all Praise and Glory are due to Allah Almighty alone!

     

     

    4-  Conclusion:

    Again, the Noble Quran is filled with scientific statements and notions.  These are statements of Allah Almighty describing how He created things on earth and in the Universe.  What’s most amazing is that all of these scientific statements and notions had been proven to be in perfect agreement with science and our modern-day scientific discoveries.  Allah Almighty made the Noble Quran be Prophet Muhammad’s (peace be upon him) Everlasting Divine Miracle and proof for Prophethood.  The Holy Book certainly stood the test of time 1,500 years ago with Its Claims, Prophecies and Miraculous language eloquence, and it does again and again in our day today with Its overwhelming agreement with science and discoveries that were not known to man 1,500 years ago.

    Allah Almighty’s statement about the day breathes and the night doesn’t is truly amazing, especially when scientists have discovered that, indeed, the cycle of breathing on earth occurs during the day, because plants photosynthesize in the light, which causes them to produce Oxygen from Carbon Dioxide.  The light of the sun causes the plants to produce Oxygen in the air, which is the #1 source of life for us humans and animals here on earth.  Without this day light, the production of Oxygen by the plants would not be possible, because they wouldn’t be able to photosynthesize.  So truly, the Night does indeed rest, and the Day does indeed breathe as Allah Almighty PRECISELY mentioned in the Noble Quran!  Again, Allah Almighty Said:

    81:17والليل اذا عسعس

    81:18 والصبح اذا تنفس

    81:17 By the night as it falls.

    81:18 And the morn as it breathes.

    Ample more English translations that accurately translate تنفس as breathes are located here.
    Allah Almighty keeps the earth’s and the sky’s functions in order:

    35:41 ان الله يمسك السماوات والارض ان تزولا ولئن زالتا ان امسكهما من احد من بعده انه كان حليما غفورا

    35:41 Indeed it is Allah Who holds the heavens and the earth (under control), and keeps them from falling into disarray. There is no one except He, Who can hold them together, should they break loose and deviate. Of course, He is the most Forbearing, the most Forgiving!

    Certainly, Allah Almighty in the Noble Quran does not swear on something that isn’t big deal.

    We’ve also seen above Dr. Zaghlool Al-Naggar’s paper that demonstrates the expansion of our Ozone Layer during the day and its shrinking during the night – similar to our lungs’ expansion and contraction during inhale and exhale.

    And why should there be any question about Allah Almighty’s Scientific Miracles in the Noble Quran when we have ample stunning Noble Verses that clearly demonstrate this, as, again, shown in the following few examples:

    1. The Miracle of the Rain, Thunder and Electrical “fertilization” caused by winds in the Noble Quran!
    2. If the Noble Quran says the earth is “egg-shaped” through a Notion, then why couldn’t Prophet Muhammad just say it clear in plain Arabic?
    3. The Ozone layer is a protective ceiling to earth.
    4. The moon’s S-shaped orbit around earth is shaped like a branch of a date tree, mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science!
    5. The formation of milk from blood and FARTH (digested food’s material), mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science!
    6. Mountains prevent the earth from shaking while rotating around its own axle.
    7. The 7 layers of earth and iron was sent down from space.
    8. Honey was proven to be a healing medicine for humans.
    9. And so on….  Please visit: www.answering-christianity.com/sci_quran.htm for ample more articles.

     

    Again, Allah Almighty did make a Divne Promise that He will Reveal those Scientific Miracles, – that exist in our Holy Book, – to us: “We will soon show them Our signs in the Universe and inside their selves, until it will become quite clear to them that it is the truth. Is it not sufficient as regards your Lord that He is a witness over all things?  (The Noble Quran, 41:53)

     

    The type of words, their combinations and their structures, that exist in the Noble Quran could not have been thought about by Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him.  I mean, who knew and who would’ve thought about a breathing cycle that exists only in the day?  What does breathing have anything to do with either the day or the night, to the people 1,500 years ago?!  We always breathe during the day and during the night!

    This is similar to the Noble Quran’s Divine Claim about the Moon’s orbit around the earth being shaped like the letter “S” or an old branch of a date tree, as shown in the link above.  Who on earth could’ve come up with that claim about THE MOON AND ASTRONOMY??

    Indeed, all Praise and Glory are due to Allah Almighty alone for making the Noble Quran be the Perfect and Everlasting Miracle, for us humans, out of all of His Divine Miracles!  And may Allah Almighty send His Peace, Mercy and Blessings upon our Beloved and Blessed Prophet, Teacher and Role Model, Muhammad.  Ameen.

     

     

     

     

    The Scientific Miracles in the Noble Quran.

    Prophet Muhammad’s peace be upon him section.

    Allah, Islam, Quran, Muhammad questions and answers.

    What is the place of Jews, Christians and non-Muslims in Islam.

    Ask me any question section.

    The S-shaped moon orbit!This is not the only time Allah Almighty used a notion for astronomy.  In another Noble Verse, He described the shape of the moon’s entire orbit around the earth as a shape of an old and dried-out date tree’s branch, also scientifically known and confirmed today as S-shaped.  The shape of the old and dried-out branch of a date tree does resemble the letter “S”.  I provided images in the article that prove this.

    Please visit: The moon’s S-shaped orbit around earth is shaped like a branch of a date tree, mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science!

     

    The egg-shaped earth’s orbit!

    This is not the only time Allah Almighty used a notion for astronomy.  In another Noble Verse, He described the shape of the earth’s orbit around the sun as egg-shaped which had also been confirmed by science.

    Please visit: If the Noble Quran says the earth is “egg-shaped” through a Notion, then why couldn’t Prophet Muhammad just say it clear in plain Arabic? with detailed proofs demonstrating the miracle of the Word/Notion “dahaha”.

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    About [defenderben]

    "We will soon show them Our signs in the Universe and INSIDE THEIR SELVES, until it will become quite clear to them that it is the truth. Is it not sufficient as regards your Lord that He is a witness over all things?" ~ (The Noble Qur'an, 41:53)
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